Humour is known to have positive effects on physical and psychological health. Empirical studies on the use of humour , especially in mental disorder, are lacking.Laughter have physiological ( reduced muscle tension, release beta endorphins) and psychological (create openness, positive mood, reduced rumination, optimism, hope, and positive social support) benefits. Individuals with psychotic disorders may have defects in recognising humour, but once the meaning is understood,it is observed that the appreciation is intact.
Therapeutic humor is defined as “any intervention that promotes health and wellness by stimulating a playful discovery, expression, or appreciation of the absurdity or incongruity of life’s situations”.It has been tried in depression and schizophrenia and found to be beneficial (Falkenberg et al.20111)
A structured humour programme ( using McGhee , 1994) was used to enhance humour skills in a sample of 30 inpatients with schizophrenia. Patients were randomised to recreational therapy( handwork) or humour therapy. Humour sessions followed a structure: opening fun activity, specific skill introduction, skill practice , watching videos and home ‘play’. This was done for 5 weeks.
Humour significantly reduced the negative symptom and depression scores.
Limitations: Humour training might help in improving coping abilities, but this has not been studied in this experiment. How much the skills are sustained and how this will be translated in real life situation is unknown. Effect of humor intervention on outcomes like rehospitalisation is also not known. Small sample size limit the confidence in conclusions.
Comment: It would be interesting to see how humour therapy helps in preventing recurrence in depression.
Summary of the article:
Effectiveness of humor intervention for patients with schizophrenia: A randomized controlled trial.
Cai C, Yu L, Rong L, Zhong H.J Psychiatr Res. 2014 (Epub).
Optogenetics has established that light-sensitive proteins can be used to control gene expression. It is also well-known that electrical activity in brain can be converted in to a physical output . Combining these two streams can pave the way for new gene and cell based treatments.
Swiss scientists led by Folcher has done exactly that.The work is the accumulation of efforts to control cell gene expressions remotely.Light inducible transgenes ( that can produce proteins to influence the cell functioning) can be introduced to cells and these can be switched on using light of a particular frequency. What this group has now done is capturing the electrical activity in brain (electrical activity in brain is already used to control prosthetics) and relay that to a light source which can then switch on the light-sensitive genes.
Researchers created a small, implantable device that contained cells responsive to near-infrared light, and a light-emitting diode (LED) that produced this wavelength. This was placed under the skin of a mouse. When stimulated by the light, these cells produced a bacterial molecule that induced the synthesis of interferons and these diffused in to animals body. The implant was wirelessly connected to a monitor that captured a human subjects brainwaves with an EEG sensor placed on their foreheads. Different mental activity of the human participant can produce different EEG signatures. These eeg signatures were then converted to threshold values for stimulating the LED .When the light was turned on, genes within the implant cells were expressed and proteins secreted into the mouse circulation.
What application might this have?
Diseases where brain activity can be distinct and pathological ( e.g. epilepsy ) might benefit from this i.e. the early brain waves are detected and control substance is released by the cells. Chronic pain is another candidate condition. Mental illness? When brain electrical signature studies reach a stage where differentiation of different mental states are possible, may be then, such devices may regulate neurochemicals or functional circuits to bring the pathological states back to normalcy. But it is a big if..
Summary of the article
Mind-controlled transgene expression by a wireless-powered optogenetic designer cell implant.
Folcher M, Oesterle S, Zwicky K, Thekkottil T, Heymoz J, Hohmann M, Christen M, Daoud El-Baba M, Buchmann P, Fussenegger M. Nat Commun. 2014
Saffron is the dried stigmas and styles of the saffron flower (Crocus sativus L.). It is the most expensive spice in the world. Saffron has been used as an anticonvulsive, analgesic, aphrodisiac and antispasmodic in traditional medicine. Pharmacological studies have shown that it may have anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti platelet effects. A recent meta-analysis, was confirmed to be effective for the treatment of depression (Hausenblas et al., 2013).
What are the underlying mechanisms that make saffron an antidepressant?
Lopresti & Drummond explores the evidence for saffrons antidepressant action and describes possible mechanisms in this article.
1. Constituents of saffron like crocin, crocetin and safranal, are potent antioxidants. Depression is associated with lowered antioxidant enzymes and elevated oxidative stress. The antioxidant action is high when the above three constituents are delivered collectively.
2. Crocin and crocetin in saffron is shown to have strong anti-inflammatory activity. Depression is associated with inflammatory disorders. Inflammatory markers like C-reactive protein , interleukin-6 , and tumour necrosis factor-α are repeatedly shown to be higher in depression. Cytokine therapy is known to increase depression. Some anti-inflammatory agents have antidepressant action. Some antidepressants have anti-inflammatory action.
3. Evidence of saffron’s action on serotenerigic system is lacking
4. Saffron might have a role in lowering the HPA response to stress, there is limited preliminary evidence to support this.
5. Saffron have some neuroprotective effect .It can increase BDNF.
4 published RCTs suggest that in mild moderate depression saffron is as effective as fluoxetine or imipramine. The effect size in 2013 metaanlysis was 1.62. The dosage used was 30mg/day. Daily dose up to 1.5 gm is considered safe. Authors caution use in individuals with coagulation disorders.Long term efficacy is not been studies beyond 8 weeks.
Global prevalence of dementia is increasing. Estimated cost of dementia worldwide in 2010 was US$604 billion. It is thus important to consider all factors (especially those preventable ones) that might be contributing to cause dementia. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs: Omeprazole and other prazoles) are widely used medications, Many countries record many fold increase in PPI prescription over the last decade. Many such prescriptions are considered inappropriate. PPI can cause Vit B12 deficiency and this may contribute to cognitive decline. They can also affect the brain enzymes like b- and c-secretase which can lead to increased Amyloid beta levels.
Britta Haenisch et al looked at the correlation between PPI use and developing dementia in a German elderly population sample over 6 years.Information from 3,327 participants from German dementia research database were analysed. These were patients 75 or older with no dementia at entry to the study. Potential confounders like age, sex, education, polypharmacy, and the comorbidities depression, diabetes, ischemic heart disease and stroke, and the Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) allele status were also studied. 3,076 subjects were included in this analysis. 713 patients received a PPI during the study period.
Use of PPIs was associated with a significant increased risk of dementia [hazard ratio (HR) 1.38, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04–1.83; p = 0.02). As expected presence of an ApoE4 allele (2.25), depression (HR 2.28), diabetes, and stroke showed a significant increase in risk of incident dementia.
Limitation: whether PPI was taken regularly is known in follow-up 3 and 4 only. Statistical association is shown- biological mechanisms to be understood.
Conclusion: This is the first epidemiological investigation showing evidence that PPI use might have an impact on dementia risk. Among primary care patients aged 75 years and older the use of PPIs was associated with a significant increase in the risk of incident dementia.
Summary of the article:
Risk of dementia in elderly patients with the use of proton pump inhibitors.
Haenisch B, von Holt K, Wiese B, Prokein J, Lange C, Ernst A, Brettschneider C, König HH, Werle J, Weyerer S, Luppa M, Riedel-Heller SG, Fuchs A, Pentzek M, Weeg D, Bickel H, Broich K, Jessen F, Maier W, Scherer M. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2014 Oct 24. [Epub)
VR (Virtual Reality) is the experience of a sense of presence in an interactive 3D world where virtual world changes according to the participant’s movements and actions. VR elicits psychological and physiological responses remarkably similar to those in the real world. Are we entering an era where VR based interventions would form one of the main means of delivering mental health interventions?
Opriş D et al 2012 ( meta analysis ) showed that VR exposure therapy is as effective as conventional therapies for anxiety disorders. VR is now being developed for assessment and intervention in psychosis. Wim Veling et al review this emerging field in this review.
VR experiments/studies has shown that paranoid ideas about avatars correlates with levels of anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, perceptual abnormalities and paranoia in real life. Individuals provide several types of ‘evidence’ supporting their paranoid beliefs.Patients more often use their own mood/affect and pre-existing beliefs about threat in daily interactions as evidence. It has also been shown that paranoia, social anxiety, and correlates of psychosis like cognitive biases were associated with paranoid thoughts about avatars, with correlation coefficients up to 0.7
It has also been used to study cognitive functioning in schizophrenia ( e.g. maze task) and found that individuals with schizophrenia are less flexible in changing strategies for finding the best bus route, were slower and less successful in a shopping task and had poorer medication management skills in a virtual apartment. They also are less able to read others emotions, and tend to keep less eye contact etc. None of these will surprise clinicians working with such individuals.All these suggest the huge potential VR is offering to assess /study various domains and abilities in controlled settings which otherwise would have been either impossible or hugely expensive.Only side effect of VR assessments so far noted was cyber sickness ( nausea).
Avatar Treatment examples
Positive symptoms: Error feedback on reading others emotions in paranoid individuals has lead to decrease in paranoid beliefs. Avatar therapy for auditory hallucinations where patients create an avatar of the entity they believe is talking to them. Then they have short dialogs with these avatars. These interventions lead to reduce the impact of hallucinations in their life.
Negative symptoms: Social skills training using VR helped patients to improve conversational skills and assertiveness and reduce negative symptoms
Cognitive intervention: Virtual shop was used for training schizophrenia patients being a salesperson, aiming at training of executive functions, problem solving, categorization, memory, and attention
VR treatments are conceivable for most dimensions of psychotic disorders. Possibilities of VR are only beginning to be explored. It definitely has great potential for increasing our understanding of psychosis and expanding the therapeutic toolbox.
07 11 2014
Suicide is a leading cause of death among children under 15. There is not much literature specifically focusing on under 15 suicide. Under 15 s differ from older young people in physical, sexual, cognitive and social development. Understanding suicide related factors in this age group is important in planning any intervention.
Rebecca Soole, Kairi Kõlves and and Diego De Leo from Griffith University, Melbourne looked at psychosocial and psychiatric factors associated with child suicide using Queensland child death register. This is a comprehensive data base for the region.Suicdie occurring between ages 10- 14 were compared with that in 15-17 yrs ( adolescents) and against age matched control groups with external causes of death.
Suicide accounted for almost one-third of external causes of death. ( 27% in children, 33% in adolescents). In both groups this was the second leading cause of death after transport related deaths.Boys died by suicide more often ( two-thirds) in both groups . Indigenous status was more associated with suicide.Children living in remote areas were more likely to die by suicide. ( OR 3.46).
Nearly half children who died by suicide were known to child protection systems. Siblings of victims were also more likely to be known to child protection systems.
Both children and adolescents used hanging more often, in children this was 91%, adolescents 80%.Mental and behavioural disorders were detected in half of children. Half of these children had shown previous suicidal behaviour. One-third of children experienced various form of abuse.
Limitations: The data base have information on psychosocial and psychiatric variables only for suicides and not for other external causes. Prevalence of mental disorders can be underreported as the data come from police, coroner and family sources.
Factors related to child suicide are different from adolescents. family and environment play an important role in child suicide. There were many opportunities for intervention.
Summary of the article:
Factors related to childhood suicides.
Soole R, Kõlves K, De Leo D.Crisis. 2014
Zolpidem is the most widely prescribed ( and most costly) hypnotic agent worldwide.It act on the GABA system. Previous reports suggest that it produce unexpected neuropsychiatric effects in patients with Parkinson’s disease. However, large population based studies were not available to conclude on this observation.Taiwanese researchers lead by Yu-Wan Yang did a population-based study using the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan to investigate the association between zolpidem and PD in patients with sleep disturbance.
Around 100,000 patients treated for sleep disturbance were included in this analysis. Nearly 60,000 received Zolpidem.They were compared against 42,000 who did not receive zolpidem for their sleep disturbance.
At the end of the follow up period (7 years), 522 (1.2%) in the zolpidem group and 287 (0.5%) in the control group developed Parkinson’s disease. Higher use of zolpidem was associated with higher incidence of Parkinson’s disease.
This is the first study to show a dose response relationship between zolpidem and risk of Parkinson’s disease. The large data base and the near complete follow up rate makes the conclusions more reliable.Previous observations of Zolpidem’s benefit in aphasia and its ability to improve brain perfusion etc need further assessment in light of these findings.
Conclusion: Zolpidem can increase the risk of Parkinson’s Disease. Clinicians need to weigh such risks before prescribing this medication.
Summary of the article:
Zolpidem and the risk of Parkinson’s disease: a nationwide population-based study.
Yang YW, Hsieh TF, Yu CH, Huang YS, Lee CC, Tsai TH. J Psychiatr Res. 2014 Nov;58:84-8